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囧研讨:罪犯能够会“因脸开罪”

Criminals with untrustworthy faces get harsher sentences
  面目面貌没法人信赖的罪犯科罚更严格
  导读:最新研讨标明,罪犯能够会“因脸开罪”。糊口中人们凡是会被一小我的长相给本身带来的感受所摆布,或阔别,或接近,或委以重担,或草率丁宁。可是在法庭上,长相为本身带来的危险能够是致命的。
  PEOPLE decide quickly how trustworthy a stranger is, based on what his face looks like. And experiments show that, regarding any particular individual, they generally come to the same conclusion. There really are, it seems, trustworthy and untrustworthy faces—though, surprisingly, there is little consensus among researchers as to whether someone whose face is deemed devious really is more likely to betray a trust. The perceivedly untrustworthy do, however, suffer for their phizogs. And a study published in this month’s Psychological Science suggests that in extreme cases—in America at least—this suffering may be fatal.
  人们会根据一个目生人的面目面貌敏捷判定他的可托赖度。尝试标明,人们对某一小我论断普通不异。看来,确切存在可托赖的脸蛋和不可托赖的脸蛋——固然,使人受惊的是,对一个脸蛋狡猾的人是不是会更轻易叛逆,研讨者们无所适从。可是,那些长着不可托赖的脸蛋的人确切在为长相所扳连。本月的《心思学》中宣布的一个研讨标明在一些极度案例中——最少是在美国——这类扳连能够是致命的。
  John Wilson and Nicholas Rule, psychologists at the University of Toronto, looked at convicted murderers in the American state of Florida, which retains the death penalty. They selected 371 prisoners on death row and a further 371 who were serving life sentences. To avoid confounding variables, all those chosen were male and were either black or white (no Asians or other ethnic groups). Each sample included 226 white convicts and 145 black ones. A group of 208 volunteers whom Dr Wilson and Dr Rule had recruited were then invited to rate photographs of each convict’s face for trustworthiness, on a scale of one to eight, where one was “not at all trustworthy” and eight was “very trustworthy”.
  John Wilson和Nicholas Rule, 多伦多大学的心思学家,检查了美国弗罗里达州的被判极刑的杀人犯。他们挑选出371个将受极刑的监犯和371个毕生禁锢的监犯。为削减过剩的变量,一切被挑选上的人皆为男性,或白人或黑人(不亚洲和其余种族)。每一个样本包含226个白人罪犯和145各黑人罪犯。Wilson博士和Rule博士招选了208个自愿者为每一个罪犯的面目面貌照片评信赖度分数,从1到8,1为“完整不值得信赖”,8为“很是值得信赖”。
  The results of all this work revealed that the faces of prisoners who were on death row had an average trustworthiness of 2.76 and that those serving life sentences averaged 2.87. Not a huge difference, but one that was statistically significant (it, or something larger, would have happened by chance less often than one time in 100). That suggests untrustworthy-looking defendants are more likely to face a lethal injection, if convicted, than trustworthy-looking ones.
  评分的成果标明被处以极刑的罪犯评分均匀为2.76,而毕生禁锢的罪犯均匀分为2.87。差异并不较着,可是数据上却意思严峻(每100次中会产生的频次少于1次)。这申明那些面目面貌看起来不让人信赖的原告人若是被科罪,比那些面目面貌让人信赖的人更有能够被奉上断头台。
  To show that this was not a result of people with untrustworthy faces actually committing more heinous (and therefore death-penalty-worthy) murders, Dr Wilson and Dr Rule also looked at the faces of those who had been convicted of murder, sentenced and then acquitted on appeal, usually on the basis of DNA evidence. These innocents, too, had more often been sentenced to death in their original trials if their faces were rated untrustworthy. In Floridian courts, at least, it seems that your face really is your fortune.
  Wilson博士和Rule博士为了证实这并不是由于面目面貌不让人信赖的人现实上会犯更严峻的杀人罪(是以会被判极刑),他们一样也检查了那些因杀人罪获科罚,最初由于DNA证据而在上述时代被赦罪的人的面目面貌。这些洁白的人,一样是被评为面目面貌不让人信赖的人,更多的在原审讯中被判了极刑。以是最少在弗罗里达的法庭看起来是如许:面目面貌决议运气。

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