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The lady who changed the world 转变天下的女人 撒切尔夫人

Margaret Thatcher
玛格丽特·撒切尔

The lady who changed the world
转变天下的女人


Apr 8th 2013, 12:35 by Economist.com



ONLY a handful of peace-time politicians can claim to have changed the world. Margaret Thatcher, who died this morning, was one. She transformed not just her own Conservative Party, but the whole of British politics. Her enthusiasm for privatisation launched a global revolution and her willingness to stand up to tyranny helped to bring an end to the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill won a war, but he never created an “ism”.

战斗时代以转变天下为己任的政治家为数寥寥。明天早上归天的玛格丽特·撒切尔便是如许一小我。她不只革新了激进党,也转变了全部英国政坛。她对公有化的热忱激发了环球反动,她匹敌暴政的意志加快了苏联衰亡。温斯顿·丘吉尔获得了战斗的成功,但他历来不缔造一个“主义”。

The essence of Thatcherism was to oppose the status quo and bet on freedom—odd, since as a prim control freak, she was in some ways the embodiment of conservatism. She thought nations could become great only if individuals were set free. Her struggles had a theme: the right of individuals to run their own lives, as free as possible from the micromanagement of the state.

撒切尔主义的实质是抵挡近况,争夺自在——这很奇异,她是一个拘束并且有激烈节制欲的人,表现了激进主义的某些特点。她以为只要小我获得自在,国度能力强大。让小我可以或许掌控本身的糊口,国度的微观办理尽可能供给自在,这是她为之奋斗的主题。

In Britain her battles with the left—especially the miners—gave her a reputation as a blue-rinse Boadicea. But she was just as willing to clobber her own side, sidelining old-fashioned Tory “wets” and unleashing her creed on conservative strongholds, notably the “big bang” in the City of London. Many of her pithiest putdowns were directed towards her own side: “U turn if you want to”, she told the Conservatives as unemployment passed 2m, “The lady’s not for turning.”

在英国她与右派——出格是矿工——奋斗,这让她获得了“蓝发博阿迪西亚”的外号。可是,她乐于报复本身地点一方,她还把激进党内的“暖和派”晾在一边,并且向激进派大本营灌注贯注她的激进概念,特别是有关伦敦金融城“大爆炸”的观点。良多最精练的报复是针对她本身营垒中的人,当赋闲率跨越200万时她对激进党说:“要转舵你就转吧,可是密斯不会转。”

Paradoxes abound. Mrs Thatcher was a true Blue Tory who marginalised the Tory Party for a generation. The Tories ceased to be a national party, retreating to the south and the suburbs and all but dying off in Scotland, Wales and the northern cities. Tony Blair profited more from the Thatcher revolution than John Major, her successor: with the trade unions emasculated and the left discredited, he was able to remodel his party and sell it triumphantly to Middle England. His huge majority in 1997 ushered in 13 years of New Labour rule.

悖论无处不在。作为真实的激进党人,她使激进党在一代人的时候里游离于支流社会以外。激进党不再是一个天下性的政党,它的权势规模已畏缩到英国南部和都会郊区,同时还差点落空苏格兰、威尔士和北部城镇地域。托尼·布莱尔从撒切尔反动获得的收益比约翰·梅杰(撒切尔的继任者)要多。工会权势受到减弱,右派落空信赖,他得以重塑本身的政党,并在英格兰中部将它成功出卖。1997年,他在议会博得大都,迎来13年的工党统治。

Yet her achievements cannot be gainsaid. She reversed what her mentor, Keith Joseph, liked to call “the ratchet effect”, whereby the state was rewarded for its failures with yet more power. With the brief exception of the emergency measures taken in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-08, there have been no moves to renationalise industries or to resume a policy of picking winners. Thanks to her, the centre of gravity of British politics moved dramatically to the right. The New Labourites of the 1990s concluded that they could rescue the Labour Party from ruin only by adopting the central tenets of Thatcherism. “The presumption should be that economic activity is best left to the private sector,” declared Mr Blair. Neither he nor his successors would dream of reverting to the days of nationalisation and unfettered union power.

可是她获得了不可消逝的成绩。她走到了恩师基斯•约瑟夫的对峙面,她喜好把本身的政策称之为“棘轮效应”,即国度的权利太多,就要面对失利。除在2007年-2008年的金融危急迸发以后,当局曾长久地采用了一些告急办法以外,国度对产业企业再也不实施过收返国有的政策,同时也不再次实施过遴选赢家的政策。多亏了撒切尔,英国政治的重心急剧右移。20世纪90年月的新工党曾总结说,他们只要采取撒切尔主义的焦点理念能力将工党从废墟中解救出来。托尼•布莱尔也曾如许说道:“咱们以为,经济勾当最好留给公营局部。”不论是托尼•布莱尔仍是他的继任者,都不再胡想着回到国有化和不受束厄局促的工会权利的时期。

On the world stage, too, Mrs Thatcher continues to cast a long shadow. Her combination of ideological certainty and global prominence ensured that Britain played a role in the collapse of the Soviet Union that was disproportionate to its weight in the world. Mrs Thatcher was the first British politician since Winston Churchill to be taken seriously by the leaders of all the major powers. She was a heroine to opposition politicians in eastern Europe. Her willingness to stand shoulder to shoulder with “dear Ronnie” to block Soviet expansionism helped to promote new thinking in the Kremlin. But her insistence that Mikhail Gorbachev was a man with whom the West could do business also helped to end the cold war.

撒切尔夫人也在天下舞台上投下了冗长的身影。她果断的认识形状环球注视的名誉使英国对苏联崩溃起到了和它在天下所占份量不符合的感化。撒切尔夫人是自温斯顿·丘吉尔以来,第一名让一切大国带领人细心权衡的英国政治家。她是东欧否决派政治家的豪杰。她情愿和“敬爱的罗尼(里根总统)”同心合力禁止苏联扩大,催生了克里姆林宫的新思惟。可是她夸大米哈伊尔•戈尔巴乔夫能和东方打交道,也有助于竣事暗斗。

The post-communist countries embraced her revolution heartily: by 1996 Russia had privatised some 18,000 industrial enterprises. India dismantled the licence Raj—a legacy of British Fabianism—and unleashed a cavalcade of successful companies. Across Latin America governments embraced market liberalisation. Whether they managed well or badly, all of them looked to the British example.

后共产主义国度真诚地接管了她的反动热:停止1996年俄罗斯对约莫一万八千个产业企业实施了公有化。印度打消了英国费边主义的遗产——“派司轨制”,良多成功的公司锋芒毕露。拉美当局实施市场自在化。不论他们做的黑白,都是对比着英国干的。

But today, the pendulum is swinging dangerously away from the principles Mrs Thatcher espoused. In most of the rich world, the state’s share of the economy has grown sharply in recent years. Regulations—excessive, as well as necessary—are tying up the private sector. Businessmen are under scrutiny as they have not been for 30 years. Demonstrators protest against the very existence of the banking industry. And with the rise of China, state control, not economic liberalism, is being hailed as a model for emerging countries.

可是明天的场面地步正在风险地背叛了撒切尔夫人的信仰的法例。比来几年大局部发财国度经济的国有成份敏捷增加。过度或须要的办理——束厄局促着公营局部。贩子蒙受着30年以来从未有过的查抄。请愿者抗议以后的银行业,就中国突起来讲,国度节制,而非经济自在主义被当做新兴国度的典型。

For a world in desperate need of growth, this is the wrong direction to head in. Europe will never thrive until it frees up its markets. America will throttle its recovery unless it avoids over-regulation. China will not sustain its success unless it starts to liberalise. This is a crucial time to hang on to Margaret Thatcher’s central perception—that for countries to flourish, people need to push back against the advance of the state. What the world needs now is more Thatcherism, not less.

对急需成长的天下来讲,这不是准确的进步标的目的。不铺开市场,欧洲永久也不会繁华;不削减不须要的羁系,美国很难苏醒;不实施经济自在化,中国的成功不会耐久。此刻到了贯彻落实玛格丽特·撒切尔中间看法的关头时辰——对兴旺成长的国度,国民须要匹敌国度权势的增加。天下要更普遍地奉行撒切尔主义,而不是放弃它。



Margaret Thatcher prepares for victory in the 1983 general election
玛格丽特·撒切尔为1983年的推举成功做筹办。


As Margaret Roberts, a grocer's daughter, she checks the price and quality of goods in 1950s Dartford, where she is standing for election
上世纪五十年月杂货商的女儿玛格利特· 罗伯茨在达特福德查抄商品的货色和品质,她在那边参选。


A jubilant wave as Mrs Thatcher, shown with husband Denis and son Mark, wins the 1979 general election for the Conservatives
撒切尔夫人欢快地挥手,她和丈夫丹尼斯和儿子马克在一路,她为激进党博得了1979年的大选。


Protests in Liverpool as unemployment rises to 2.16m in 1981 and Mrs Thatcher's popularity plummets
1981年赋闲人数到达二百一十六万,利物浦产生了抗议勾当,撒切尔夫人的人气大幅下跌


Inside 10 Downing Street, Mrs Thatcher worked long hours
唐宁街10号外部,撒切尔夫野生作了很长时候


A shared purpose: with American president Ronald Reagan in 1984 during the Cold War
配合方针:暗斗时代和美国总统罗纳德·里根在一路(1984年)


Antipathy towards integration during a European Economic Community summit in 1984
讨厌一体化,摄于1984年欧洲经济配合体峰会


The lady is not for turning: on a visit to British troops in Germany, four years after the Falklands War
不会转变的女人:马岛战斗四年以后,校阅阅兵驻德国的英国戎行


Mrs Thatcher wins a record third successive term in office as a result of the 1987 election victory
1987年推举得胜,撒切尔夫人博得三蝉联记实


Lampooned by puppet makers in the television series "Spitting Image"
木偶建造人在电视上搞的刺系列“如出一辙”


The thawing of relations with the Soviet Union: with Mikhail Gorbachev in 1990
和苏联的干系冻结,1990年和米哈伊尔•戈尔巴乔夫在一路


As Baroness Thatcher at the state opening of Parliament in 2010
2010年女男爵撒切尔列席 国会揭幕大典



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